Crush your cravings with 5 appetite-suppressing foods.


By Julie Daniluk R.N.C.  www.juliedaniluk.com

Nutritionist and host of Healthy Gourmet on the OWN network

 

 

Julie Daniluk on The Dr Oz Show

 


Do you struggle with cravings? They aren’t your fault! It turns out that our hormones cause our cravings. Hormones are the messengers that influence how we feel, what we want and how fast our body stores fat.


When your stomach is empty it produces a hormone called ghrelin that causes hunger. Think of ghrelin like the gremlin that is sabotaging your weight loss efforts.  If you let yourself go hungry, your cravings will be too intense to resist!

The trick is to stay full. The way to get rid of the “ghrelin gremlin” is to eat wholesome foods that suppress your appetite. No gimmicks, no crash diets, just consistent tools to help you stay full and satisfied. Reduce your calorie intake by just 500 calories a day and you could lose 50 lbs a year! This can be as easy as cutting back 3 ounces of potato chips or one cheeseburger a day.

 

An apple a day keeps the doctor away!

 

I know that you don't want Dr. Oz to go away but you do want to avoid extra visits to your doctor due to unbalanced blood sugar. In 2010, Drs. Chawla and Patil confirmed that the soluble fiber in apples called pectin reduces the amount of sugar and calories that’s absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00099.x/full)  That’s good news for folks who want to prevent type II diabetes, but it also makes apples one of the best snacks for dieters. Apple pectin prevents spikes in blood sugar that lead to increased fat storage. It will help you avoid the blood sugar “crash” that leaves you craving more food.

 

How long it will keep you satiated?

 

Apple pectin can keep you full for 1—2 hours.

 

When do you take it?

 

Eat an apple before or after a meal to help keep you full faster and longer, or between meals to help keep blood sugar balanced. Consider adding apple pectin powder to yogurt, porridge or shakes.

 

Banish hunger with bran

 

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate you can't digest. This is great news for weight loss because it means fiber has no calories. One of the richest sources of insoluble fiber is wheat bran.

 

How long it will keep you satiated?

 

Fill up your stomach with a large glass of water and 1 or 2 tablespoons of bran and you will stop the released of the hunger hormone ghrelin for approximately an hour (results will vary depending on the person). Bran absorbs water and moisture in the stomach, becoming a sponge. It physically expands in the stomach & makes you feel full, so you will eat less! Start off taking small amounts and gradually increase the dose depending on how your stomach responds.


Note: Wheat allergies are becoming more common. Rice bran will work as effectively as wheat bran.

When do you take it?

 

Take bran with meals. Make sure to consume enough fluid to create the sponge effect. Bran is great in shakes or apple sauce, where the liquid is built into the food. Be careful to drink lots of liquid because if you don’t, then the fiber can become like cork in your digestive tract and cause painful cramps or constipation. The best time to have wheat bran would be at breakfast, after dinner or before bed. If you’re going to have fiber alone between meals, then accompany it with at least 12 ounces of water.

 

Go green to get lean

 

Green tea contains an amazing phytonutrient called EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) that increases the hormone CCK (cholecystokinin), which is responsible for creating the feeling of satiation. Feeling full between meals is the greatest weapon against the battle of the bulge. (Chen et al., 2006 -- Open access link: (http://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/291/4/C726.full.pdf+html)

 

EGCG also stimulates your metabolism by activating thermogenesis, which means your cells are burning energy—including fat! (Shixian et al., 2006; Boschmann & Thielecke, 2007;  -- Open access link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17201629 ;  (http://www.jacn.org/content/26/4/389S.abstract)

 

How well does it work?

 

In the short-term, this may help you feel satiated for 2—4 hours, depending on what kind of meal you ate recently.

 

Over the long-term, if you drink green tea daily, it will help prevent storage of excess fat and improve your body’s fat burning ability. Because it also affects your appetite-regulating hormones, it can change how your body metabolizes food and handles cravings!

 

When do you take it?

 

EGCG liquid or tablets are a great tool to keep in your purse or pocket so you can avoid cravings when out shopping or at work. You can drink tea before, after, and between meals.

 

Note: Whole leaf green tea contains fluoride that may disrupt thyroid function so consider taking EGCG extract if you suffer from hypothyroidism.

 

Devine from the vine!

 

Many people have heard about the health benefits of red wine. When you ferment red wine long enough, it becomes red wine vinegar. And while you wouldn’t want to drink a glass of red wine vinegar, it’s still a healthy, appetite-suppressing addition to your meal. Acetic acid, the active ingredient in vinegar, helps keep food in the stomach for a longer period of time so release of the hunger hormone ghrelin is delayed. Vinegar also improves digestion, and it helps you feel full faster and for a longer period of time (Hlebowicz et al., 2007  --  Open access link:  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/7/46

 

Acetic acid also helps prevent spikes in blood sugar following a meal (Östman et al., 2005  --   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16015276 ; Hlebowicz et al., 2007) and will lower the glycemic index of many foods. Red wine vinegar contains nutrients such the antioxidant resveratrol that has been shown to protect the heart! (Cerezo et al., 2008  -- Open access link: http://www.sre.urv.es/web/amb/Webgrup/Cat/AAB/docs/Publis_docs/Cerezo.FoodChem2008.pdf)

 

In the study by Dr. Östman and team, a dose of approximately 2 tablespoons gave the best results, and blood levels of sugar and insulin remained normalized for at least 45 minutes after women and men ate a meal of vinegar and white bread. If vinegar can help people cope with high glycemic foods like white bread, then imagine how effective it would be if you ate healthy whole grains!

 

You can expect it to fight cravings for 1—1.5 hours, depending on the contents of the meal consumed, but the effects of increased fat metabolism in the liver can extend more than 3 hours after a meal!

 

When do you take it?

 

One tablespoon of red wine vinegar mixed with sparkling water makes a great cocktail. Drink this with meals to support digestion and regulate your blood sugar. A study by White and Johnston in 2007 ( http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/11/2814.full.pdf ) showed that taking vinegar at bedtime helps regulate blood sugar levels the next morning.

 

Pining for pine nuts


Many diets say that fats are to be avoided because they are high in calories, but not all fat is created equal. The omega-6 fatty acid found in pine nuts called pinolenic acid has been shown to increase the release of satiety hormones. A study in 2008 by Dr. Hughes and her team showed how this type of fat can actually promote weight loss and reduce food intake. Pinolenic acid appears to be particularly effective at stimulating the release of CCK (cholecystokinin), the hormone that works as a hunger suppressant. A study by Dr. Pasman (open access link: http://www.lipidworld.com/content/7/1/10 ) and team showed that pine nuts effectively improved satiety and increased CCK in overweight, post-menopausal women.

 

What can you expect?


Hughes found that the satiety effects of pine nut oil lasts at least 30 minutes, but may not carry over into next meal (Hughes et al., 2008  --  Open access link:  http://www.lipidworld.com/content/7/1/6  ).


Some people may experience a longer feeling of satiety as pinolenic acid affects hormone release. In some cases the sensation of fullness could last up to 2 hours!

 

When do you take them?

 

Pine nuts make a great snack on the go. Consider making the delicious pesto below and adding it to your vegetable side dish, salad or whole grain noodles. Be sure to enjoy pine nuts and pine nut oil raw to protect the health qualities of the oil.

 

Crush your Craving Pesto


Here’s a pesto that will please your taste buds while it crushes your cravings! When served with whole grain crackers, this pesto contains all 5 appetite suppressants suggested.

 

2 cups fresh basil
1 cup       
kale
1/2 cup       
pine nuts
1/2        
green apple, sliced
1/2 cup                
olive oil
2 tbsp       
red wine vinegar
1 clove       
garlic
¼ tsp       
pink rock or grey sea salt
Optional ingredient: 1 tsp
EGCG extract
        

 

Put all ingredients in a blender or food processor. Blend on high until desired paste consistency is reached. Store in air-tight glass jar in fridge or freezer.


Serve with whole grain (high bran) crackers.

 

 

Nutritionist Julie Daniluk hosts Healthy Gourmet, a reality cooking show that looks at the ongoing battle between taste and nutrition. Her soon to be published first book, Meals That Heal Inflammation (Random House), advises on allergy-free foods that both taste great and assist the body in the healing process.  Join Julie's mailing list a get her FREE report on 50 ways to leave your cravings!


 



 

 

References:


Boschmann, M., and D. Thielecke. 2007. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 26(4): 389S–395S. PMID: 17906192.

http://www.jacn.org/content/26/4/389S.abstract


Cerezo, A. B., W. Tesfaye, M. J. Torija, E. Mateo, M. C. Garcia-Parrilla, A. M. Troncoso. 2008. The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods. Food Chemistry. 109(3): 606—615. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.013

Open access link:  http://www.sre.urv.es/web/amb/Webgrup/Cat/AAB/docs/Publis_docs/Cerezo.FoodChem2008.pdf


Chawla, R., and G. R. Patil. 2010. Soluble dietary fiber. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 9(2): 178—196. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00099.x

Open access link:  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00099.x/pdf


Chen, M. C., S. V. Wu, J. R. Reeve, Jr., and E. Rozengurt. 2006. Bitter stimuli induce Ca2+ signaling and CCK release in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells: role of L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology. 291(4): C726—C739. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00003.2006.

Open access link:  http://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/291/4/C726.full.pdf+html


Cummings, D. E., and J. Overduin. 2007. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117(1): 13—23. doi: 10.1172/JCI30227.

Open access link:  http://abbmcertification.org/inc/assets/articles/GI%20Regulation%20of%20Food%20Input.pdf


Hlebowicz, J., G. Darwiche, O. Björgell, and L. Almér. 2007. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Biomed Central (BMC) Gastroenterology. 7: 46. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-7-46

Open access link: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/7/46


Hughes, G. W., E. J. Boyland, N. J. Williams, L. Mennen, C. Scott, T. C. Kirkham1, J. A. Harrold, H. G. Keizer, and J. C. G. Halford. 2008. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThinTM) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids in Health and Disease. 7: 6. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-7-6

Open access link:  http://www.lipidworld.com/content/7/1/6


Johnston, C. S., C. M. Kim, and A. J. Buller. 2004. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 27(1): 281—282. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.1.281

Open access link:  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/1/281.full

 

Kondo, T., Kishi, M., Fushini, T., and T. Kaga. 2009. Acetic acid upregulates the expression of genes for fatty acid oxidation enzymes in liver to suppress body fat accumulation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(13): 5982—5986. doi: 10.1021/jf900470c, PMID: 19469536
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf900470c


Nakamura, K., Y. Ogasawara, K. Endou, S. Fujimori, M. Koyama, and H. Akano. 2010. Phenolic compounds responsible for the superoxide dismutase-like activity in high-brix apple vinegar. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(18): 10124—10132. doi: 10.1021/jf100054n, PMID: 20795622

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf100054n


Ogawa, N., H. Satsu, H. Watanabe, M. Fukaya, Y. Tsukamoto, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Shimizu. 2000. Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity that occurs during culture of Caco-2 cells. The Journal of Nutrition. 130(3): 507—513. PMID: 10702577

Open access link: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/3/507.full


Okuda, T., and H. Ito. 2011. Tannins of constant structure in medicinal and food plants—hydrolyzable tannins and polyphenols related to tannins. Molecules. 16: 2191—2217. doi: 10.3390/molecules16032191.

Open access link:  http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/3/2191/pdf


Östman, E., Y. Granfeldt, L. Persson, and I. Björck. 2005. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59(9): 983—988. PMID: 16015276

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16015276


Pasman, W. J., J. Heimerikx, C. M. Rubingh, R. van den Berg, M. O'Shea, L. Gambelli, H. F. J. Hendriks, A. W. C. Einerhand, C. Scott, Hiskias G. Keizer, and L. I. Mennen. 2008. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women. Lipids in Health and Disease. 7: 10. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-7-10

Open access link:  http://www.lipidworld.com/content/7/1/10


Shixian, Q., B. VanCrey, J. Shi, Y. Kakuda, and Y. Jiang. 2006. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. Journal of Medicinal Food. 9(4): 451—458. PMID: 17201629

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17201629


White, A. M., and C. S. Johnston. 2007. Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well-controlled type-2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 30(11): 2814—2815. doi: 10.2337/dc07-1062

Open access link:  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/11/2814.full.pdf